The Bogor Botanical Gardens (Indonesian: Kebun Raya) are located in the city of Bogor in Indonesia, 60 km south of the capital of Jakarta. The gardens are in the city center and adjoin the Istana Bogor (Presidential Palace). The gardens cover more than 80 hectares and were built by Java’s Dutch Governor-General Gustaaf Willem, Baron van Imhoff who was governor of Java at the time.
The grounds of the presidential palace were converted into the gardens by the German-born Dutch botanist, Professor Casper George Carl Reinwardt. The gardens officially opened in 1817 as ‘s Lands Plantentuin (‘National Botanical Garden’). They were used to research and develop plants and seeds from other parts of Indonesia for cultivation during the 19th century. This is a tradition that continues today and contributes to the garden’s reputation as a center of botanical research.
Today the garden contains more than 15,000 species of trees and plants. There are 400 types of exceptional palms along lawns and avenues.The Gardens are a refuge for more than 50 different varieties of birds and for groups of bats roosting high in the trees. The orchid houses contain some 3,000 varieties. In 1862, the Cibodas Botanical Gardens were founded as an extension of the Bogor garden at Cibodas, approximately 45 kilometers to the southeast of Bogor.
The gardens were used during the APEC summit meeting in Indonesia attended by sixty world leaders which formalised the Bogor Declaration.
perature or the oxidation state. The sand and rocks surrounding the lake have been also leached into whitish colours through interaction with the acidic lake waters (with possible mineral precipitation as well).